Unless the life chances of children raised by single mothers suddenly improve, the explosive growth of the U.S. Hispanic population over the next couple of decades does not bode well for American social stability.
The dimensions of the Hispanic baby boom are startling. The Hispanic birthrate is twice as high as that of the rest of the American population. That high fertility rateeven more than unbounded levels of immigration will fuel the rapid Hispanic population boom in the coming decades.
By 2050, the Latino population will have tripled, the Census Bureau projects. One in four Americans will be Hispanic by midcentury, twice the current ratio.
Its the fertility surge among unwed Hispanics that should worry policymakers. Hispanic women have the highest unmarried birthrate in the country over three times that of whites and Asians, and nearly 1 ½ times that of black women, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Every 1,000 unmarried Hispanic women bore 92 children in 2003 (the latest year for which data exist), compared with 28 children for unmarried white women, 22 for unmarried Asian women, and 66 for unmarried black women.
Forty-five percent of all Hispanic births occur outside of marriage, compared with 24 percent for whites and 15 percent for Asians. Only the percentage for blacks 68 percent is higher. But the black population is not going to triple over the next few decades.
The only bright news in this demographic disaster story concerns teen births. Overall teen childbearing in the U.S. declined for the 12th year in a row in 2003, having dropped by more than a third since 1991. Yet even here, Hispanics remain a cause for concern. The rate of childbirth for teens from Mexico, part of the fastest-growing immigrant population in the U.S., greatly outstrips every other group.
To grasp the reality behind those numbers, one need only talk to people working on the front lines of family breakdown. Social workers in Southern California, the national epicenter for illegal Hispanic immigrants, are in despair over the epidemic of single parenting. Not only has illegitimacy become perfectly acceptable, they say, but so has the resort to welfare and social services to cope with it.
Dr. Ana Sanchez delivers babies at St. Josephs Hospital in the city of Orange, Calif., many of them to Hispanic teenagers. To her dismay, they view having a child at their age as normal. But what is “most alarming,” Dr. Sanchez says, is that the “teens parents view having babies outside of marriage as normal, too. A lot of the grandmothers are single as well; they never married, or they had successive partners. So the mom sends the message to her daughter that its OK to have children out of wedlock.”
Dr. Sanchez feels almost personally involved in the problem: “Im Hispanic myself. I wish I could find out what the Asians are doing right.” She guesses that Asian parents passion for education inoculates their children against the underclass trap. “Hispanics are not picking that up like the Asian kids,” she says with a sigh.
Conservatives who support open borders are fond of invoking “Hispanic family values” as a benefit of unlimited Hispanic immigration. Marriage is clearly no longer one of those family values. But other kinds of traditional Hispanic values have survivednot all of them necessarily ideal in a modern economy, however. One of them is the importance of having children early and often.
“Its considered almost a badge of honor for a young girl to have a baby,” says Peggy Schulze of Chrysalis House, an adoption agency in Fresno. It is almost impossible to persuade young Hispanic mothers to give up a child for adoption, Ms. Schulze says. “The attitude is: How could you give away your baby? I dont know how to break through.”
The most powerful Hispanic family value the tight-knit extended family facilitates unwed child rearing. Relatives often step in to make up for the absence of the babys father. I asked Mona, a 19-year-old parishioner at St. Josephs Church in Santa Ana, Calif., if she knew any single mothers.
She laughed: “There are so many I cant even name them.” Two of her cousins, 25 and 19, have children without having husbands. The situation didnt seem to trouble this churchgoer too much. “Theyll be strong enough to raise them. Its totally OK with us,” she said. “Were very close; were there to support them. Theyll do just fine.”
As Monas family suggests, out-of-wedlock child rearing among Hispanics is by no means confined to the underclass. The St. Josephs parishioners are precisely the churchgoing, blue-collar workers whom open-borders conservatives celebrate. Yet they are as susceptible as others to illegitimacy.
Fifty-year-old Irma and her husband, Rafael, came legally from Mexico in the early 1970s. Rafael works in a meatpacking plant in Brea; they have raised five husky boys who attend church with them. Yet Irmas sister a homemaker like herself, also married to a factory handis now the grandmother of two illegitimate children, one by each daughter. “I saw nothing in the way my sister and her husband raised her children to explain it,” Irma says.
“She gave them everything.” One of the fathers of Irmas young nieces has four other children by a variety of different mothers. His construction wages are being garnished for child support, but he is otherwise not involved in raising his children.
The tradition of starting families young and expanding them quickly can come into conflict with more modern U.S. mores. Ron Storm, director of the Hillview Acres foster home in Chino, tells of a 15-year-old girl who was taken away from the 21-year-old father of her child by a local child-welfare department. The boyfriend went to jail, charged with rape. But the girls parents complained about the agencys interference, and eventually both the girl and her boyfriend ended up going back to Mexico.
But though older men continue to take advantage of younger women, the age gap between the mother and the father of an illegitimate child is quickly closing. Planned Parenthood of Orange and San Bernardino counties tries to teach young fathers to take responsibility for their children. “Were seeing a lot more 13- and 14-year-old fathers,” says Kathleen Collins, vice president of health education.
Normally, the fathers, of whatever age, take off. “The father may already be married or in prison or doing drugs,” says Amanda Gan, director of operations for Tobys House, a maternity home in Dana Point, Calif. Mona, the 19-year-old parishioner at St. Josephs, says the boys who impregnated her two cousins are “nowhere to be found.” Her family knows them but doesnt know if they are working or in jail.
Married to the state
Despite the strong family support, the prevalence of single parenting among Hispanics is producing the inevitable slide into the welfare system. “The girls arent marrying the guys, so they are married to the state,” Dr. Sanchez observes. Hispanics now dominate the federal Women, Infants and Children free food program; Hispanic enrollment grew more than 25 percent from 1996 to 2002, while black enrollment dropped 12 percent and white enrollment dropped 6.5 percent.
Illegal immigrants can get welfare programs for their American-born children. Amy Braun works for Marys Shelter, a home for young single mothers who are homeless or in crisis, in Orange County, Calif. It has become “culturally OK” for the Hispanic population to use the shelter and welfare system, Ms. Braun says.
A case manager at a program for pregnant homeless women in the city of Orange observes the same acculturation to the social services sector, with its grievance mongering and sense of victimhood. “Ill have women in my office on their fifth child, when the others have already been placed in foster care,” says Anita Berry of Casa Teresa. “Theres nothing shameful about having multiple children that you cant care for and to be pregnant again, because then you can blame the system.”
The consequences of family breakdown are now being passed down from one generation to the next. “The problems are deeper and wider,” says Ms. Berry. “Now youre getting the second generation of foster care and group home residents. The dysfunction is multigenerational.”
Yet for all these markers of social dysfunction, fatherless Hispanic families differ from the black underclass in one significant area: Many of the mothers and the absent fathers work, even despite growing welfare use.
How these two value systems a lingering work ethic and underclass mating norms will interact in the future is anyones guess. From an intellectual standpoint, this is a fascinating social experiment, one that academicians are predictably not attuned to. But the consequences will be more than intellectual: They may severely strain the social fabric. Nevertheless, it is an experiment that we seem destined to see to its end.
Original Source: http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/dn/opinion/points/stories/DN-macdonald_21edi.ART0.State.Edition1.2975516.html