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Civic
Report

No. 50 January 2007


How Much Are Public School Teachers Paid?

Marcus A. Winters, Ph.D., Senior Fellow, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research

Jay P. Greene, Ph.D., Senior Fellow, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research

Executive Summary

Education policy discussions often assume that public school teachers are poorly paid. Typically absent in these discussions about teacher pay, however, is any reference to systematic data on how much public school teachers are actually paid, especially relative to other occupations. Because discussions about teacher pay rarely reference these data, the policy debate on education reform has proceeded without a clear understanding of these issues.

This report compiles information on the hourly pay of public school teachers nationally and in 66 metropolitan areas, as collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in its annual National Compensation Survey. We also compare the reported hourly income of public school teachers with that of workers in similar professions, as defined by the BLS. This report goes on to use the BLS data to analyze whether there is a relationship between higher relative pay for public school teachers and higher student achievement as measured by high school graduation rates.

Among the key findings of this report:

  • According to the BLS, the average public school teacher in the United States earned $34.06 per hour in 2005.


  • The average public school teacher was paid 36% more per hour than the average non-sales white-collar worker and 11% more than the average professional specialty and technical worker.


  • Full-time public school teachers work on average 36.5 hours per week during weeks that they are working. By comparison, white-collar workers (excluding sales) work 39.4 hours, and professional specialty and technical workers work 39.0 hours per week. Private school teachers work 38.3 hours per week.


  • Compared with public school teachers, editors and reporters earn 24% less; architects, 11% less; psychologists, 9% less; chemists, 5% less; mechanical engineers, 6% less; and economists, 1% less.


  • Compared with public school teachers, airplane pilots earn 186% more; physicians, 80% more; lawyers, 49% more; nuclear engineers, 17% more; actuaries, 9% more; and physicists, 3% more.


  • Public school teachers are paid 61% more per hour than private school teachers, on average nationwide.


  • The Detroit metropolitan area has the highest average public school teacher pay among metropolitan areas for which data are available, at $47.28 per hour, followed by the San Francisco metropolitan area at $46.70 per hour, and the New York metropolitan area at $45.79 per hour.


  • We find no evidence that average teacher pay relative to that of other white-collar or professional specialty workers is related to high school graduation rates in the metropolitan area.

About the Authors

JAY P. GREENE, Ph.D., is Endowed Chair and Head of the Department of Education Reform at the University of Arkansas and a Senior Fellow at the Manhattan Institute. He has conducted evaluations of school choice and accountability programs in Florida, Charlotte, Milwaukee, Cleveland, and San Antonio. He has also recently published research on high school graduation rates, social promotion, and special education. His articles have appeared in policy journals, such as The Public Interest, City Journal, and Education Next; in academic journals, such as the Teachers College Record, the Georgetown Public Policy Review, and the British Journal of Political Science; and in major newspapers, including the Wall Street Journal, the Washington Post, and USA Today. Dr. Greene is the author of Education Myths (Rowman & Littlefield, 2005). Dr. Greene received his B.A. in history from Tufts University and his doctorate in political science from Harvard University.

MARCUS A. WINTERS is a Senior Research Associate at the Manhattan Institute and a Doctoral Academy Fellow at the University of Arkansas. He has performed several studies on a variety of education policy issues, including high-stakes testing, charter schools, and the effects of vouchers on the public school system. His op-ed articles have appeared in numerous newspapers, including the Washington Post, USA Today, and the Chicago Sun-Times. He received his B.A. in political science with departmental honors from Ohio University in 2002 and an M.A. in economics from the University of Arkansas in 2006.


Introduction

Education policy discussions often assume that public school teachers are poorly paid. “Salaries are too low. We all know that,” says First Lady Laura Bush, expressing the consensus view. “We need to figure out a way to pay teachers more.”[1] Teachers’ unions consistently contend that their members are under-compensated. “It’s easier to earn more money with less stress in other fields,” laments a representative for the National Education Association.[2] The problem is so severe, asserts Washington Post columnist Richard Cohen, that teachers ought to be exempt from paying income tax.[3]

Typically absent in these discussions about teacher pay, however, is any reference to systematic data on how much public school teachers are actually paid. How much do they earn? How do their wages compare with those of other workers? Because discussions about teacher pay rarely reference these data, the policy debate on education reform has proceeded without a clear understanding of these issues.

This report aims to fill that gap. We make no judgments in this report about whether public school teachers are underpaid or overpaid. Our purpose is rather to facilitate a fact-based approach to teacher pay, by shifting the focus of policy discussions to systematic data.

Systematic data on teacher compensation are, in fact, available. The U.S. Government’s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects and reports hourly earnings for teachers and a host of other occupations nationwide and in scores of metropolitan areas. Yet, although previous research has used BLS data to draw conclusions about the proper level of teacher pay,[4] no one has organized and reproduced those data so that others can easily observe the information and form their own interpretations. In this report, therefore, we have aimed to collect, organize, and make available teacher-pay data from the BLS in an easily accessible format. We have organized the results alphabetically by metro area; by the amount of public school teacher pay in each metro area; and by public school teacher pay relative to that of other workers.

In what follows, we report the facts on how much teachers are paid, on average, nationwide and in more than 60 metropolitan areas. We also report how well teachers are paid relative to other occupations with which they are grouped by the BLS. Finally, we conduct some exploratory analyses of the relationship between the relative pay of public school teachers and student achievement, as measured by graduation rates, to see whether higher relative pay relates to higher student achievement.

Other than our analyses of the relationship between relative teacher pay and student achievement, the data presented here are drawn entirely from BLS reports.[5] All the mean hourly earnings figures reported here are for full-time workers and exclude the value of benefits such as health care, life insurance, and pensions. Almost all the earnings results are as of 2005, but the specific year of data collection for each result is indicated in the tables.

How Much Are Public School Teachers Paid?

The BLS essentially asks employers to provide information on the hourly earnings of employees (exclusive of benefits) and the number of hours worked during a week. The BLS also groups occupations into blue-collar—industrial and manufacturing jobs; and white-collar—mostly service and office jobs. Teaching in elementary and secondary schools is classified as white-collar. The BLS further subclassifies white-collar occupations into categories, including professional specialty and technical; executive, administrative, and managerial; sales; and administrative support and clerical occupations. Public school teachers are in the professional specialty and technical worker group. Other occupations in that group include engineers, architects, mathematicians, computer scientists, biologists, chemists, physicians, dentists, registered nurses, actors, athletes, and airline pilots. (A list of occupations in the professional specialty and technical category can be found in Table 2.)

According to the BLS, the average public school teacher in the United States earned $34.06 per hour in 2005. (See Table 1.) The average white-collar worker (excluding sales) earned $25.08 per hour, and the average professional specialty and technical worker earned $30.66 per hour. The average public school teacher was paid 36% more per hour than the average non-sales white-collar worker and 11% more than the average professional specialty and technical worker. Nationwide, public school teachers earn more than the average workers with whom they are grouped into categories by the BLS.

The Detroit metropolitan area has the highest average public school teacher pay among metropolitan areas for which data are available, at $47.28 per hour. (See Table 1A.) The average public school teacher in the San Francisco metropolitan area is not far behind, at $46.70 per hour. The third-highest average public school teacher pay is in the New York metropolitan area ($45.79). The top ten metro areas in terms of average public school teacher pay can all be found in California, Michigan, or the Northeast.

The lowest-average public school teacher pay for metro areas with data available is in metro Greensboro, North Carolina, with the mean hourly earnings at $21.67. The Raleigh, North Carolina, metro area is second from the bottom, where public school teachers made $22.38 per hour as of 2004. Orlando, Florida, had the third-lowest average public school teacher pay, at $25.03 per hour. The ten lowest-paying metro areas could all be found in the South or the West, with three in North Carolina or South Carolina, three in Texas, and one each in Florida, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Alabama.
But these rankings are strongly influenced by the different cost of living found in various metropolitan areas. If we want to know how well teachers are paid by metro area, it may be more useful to look at the pay of the average public school teacher relative to the average white-collar or the average professional worker. The cost of living in a metro area affects all types of workers. So public school teachers are relatively better paid if their pay is proportionately higher than that of other workers in the same metro area. In Table 1B, you can find metro areas ranked by the ratio of the average teacher pay to the average white-collar worker pay.

By this measure, metro Elkhart, Indiana, has the highest-paid public school teachers because the average public school teacher makes 87% more than the average white-collar worker in the same area. Metro Grand Rapids, Michigan, has the second-highest public school teacher earnings relative to white-collar workers, with teachers making 80% more. Metro Louisville, Kentucky, is third-highest, where the average public school teacher is paid 79% more than the average white-collar worker. The Detroit metro area, which had the highest nominal public school teacher pay, at $47.28 per hour, had the eighth-highest pay relative to white-collar workers, with teachers making 61% more than white-collar workers.

Many of the areas with the lowest nominal pay also had the lowest pay relative to white-collar workers. In metro Raleigh, public school teachers are paid 15% less than the average white-collar worker. That gives Raleigh the distinction of being the only metro area for which data are available where the average public school teacher makes less than the average white-collar worker. Metro Greensboro and metro Charlotte, North Carolina, were the next two in lowest pay relative to white-collar workers, with public school teachers making 1% and 4%, respectively, more than white-collar workers.

But perhaps it would be better to focus on the pay of public school teachers relative to professional specialty and technical workers, the subgroup of white-collar workers with whom they are grouped by the BLS. (See Table 1C.) Nationwide, the mean hourly earnings for public school teachers is 36% higher than for white-collar workers and 11% higher than for professional workers. In only one of the 66 metropolitan areas with data available were public school teachers paid less than white-collar workers. In 11 of 66 metro areas, public school teachers make less, on average, than professional specialty and technical workers. The highest- and lowest-ranked metro areas in terms of public school teacher pay relative to professional workers are very similar to the highest and lowest relative to white-collar workers. In metro Louisville, public school teachers make 69% more than other professional workers; in metro Raleigh, they make 29% less. In all the nation’s largest metropolitan areas, public school teachers make more than professional specialty and technical workers. In metro New York, they make 20% more; in metro Los Angeles, 23% more; and in metro Chicago, 12% more.

So that people have a better idea of what occupations are included in the professional specialty and technical workers category and how well public school teachers are paid relative to those occupations, we have prepared Table 2. It contains the mean hourly earnings for all noneducational occupations in the professional specialty and technical category as well as public school teachers. Public school teachers have higher earnings than 61 of these 85 occupations. For example, editors and reporters earn 24% less than public school teachers; architects, 11% less; psychologists, 9% less; chemists, 5% less; mechanical engineers, 6% less; and economists, 1% less. Airplane pilots earn 186% more than public school teachers; physicians, 80% more; lawyers, 49% more; nuclear engineers, 17% more; actuaries, 9% more; and physicists, 3% more.
Public school teachers also earn more than private school teachers. (See Table 3.) Nationwide, public school teachers are paid 61% more than private school teachers. Information on the pay of private school teachers by metro area has a fair amount of missing data since there may have been insufficient samples in many areas. For those metro areas for which we have data, San Antonio, San Francisco, and Minneapolis paid their public school teachers more than twice as much as private school teachers. In the Phoenix, Houston, and Raleigh metro areas, private school teachers earned more than public school teachers.

How Many Hours Do Public School Teachers Work Per Week?

According to the BLS, full-time public school teachers work on average 36.5 hours per week during weeks that they are working. (See Table 4.) By comparison, white-collar workers (excluding sales) work 39.4 hours and professional specialty and technical workers work 39.0 hours per week. Private school teachers work 38.3 hours per week.

In Table 4A, we have ranked metro areas by the average number of hours that public school teachers work. Public school teachers in metro Grand Rapids, Michigan, work the fewest hours per week among the metro area for which we have data, at 32.6 hours per week. In metro New York, public school teachers work an average of 32.7 hours per week. And in metro Los Angeles, public school teachers work an average of 33.2 hours per week. The highest reported workweek can be found in metro Milwaukee and Amarillo, where public school teachers work 40.0 hours per week. In metro Portland, Oregon, the average workweek for public school teachers is 39.8 hours.

Are Hours Worked Counted Properly?

BLS figures are supposed to include all hours worked. As the technical appendix to the National Compensation Survey describes it, “Because salaried workers, exempt from overtime provisions, often work beyond the assigned work schedule, their typical number of hours actually worked was collected.”[6]

Some may fear that the extra time that teachers spend grading, preparing for class, and assisting extracurricular activities is not included in the BLS figures, but the BLS appears to include all these activities in its work-hour calculations: “Virtually all teachers worked from 30 to 40 hours per week, which included paid lunch and rest periods, as well as preparation and grading time if such activities were considered by the school to be a part of the teacher’s workday. Additional hours for extracurricular activities were included only if considered part of the regular work schedule.”[7] The inclusion of lunch and rest periods in work-hour calculations is more common for teachers: “[T]eachers, more than the other groups, were the most likely to have paid lunch as well as paid rest periods.”[8]

Teachers also report taking work home at high rates: “Schoolteachers and instructors (excluding college) especially were likely to take work home, with 2.8 million—or about half of all teachers—reporting such activity in the May 2004 survey.”[9] But other professionals also appear to take work home at high rates: “Almost 30 percent of workers in management, professional, and related occupations reported working at home in May 2004.”[10] If any of this work at home, either by teachers or other professionals, is considered by the employer to be part of the actual hours worked, it is included in the BLS figures. It is possible that teachers, as well as other professionals, put in some hours at home that are not captured in these numbers, but those hours would not be considered required for their jobs and thus are not part of their paid employment.

But what if the BLS is wrong in how it counts hours worked? Would that alter the earnings comparisons between public school teachers and white-collar and professional workers? To believe that the BLS unfairly counts hours worked by teachers relative to others, we would have to believe that teachers spend more hours working at home than do other white-collar or professional workers. We would further have to believe that those hours worked at home are not counted in the BLS figures but really are required for employment.

To test how much of a difference this type of error might make in earnings comparisons, let’s assume that public school teachers work the same number of hours per week as do white-collar and professional workers, rather than the fewer hours reported. If we divide the weekly earnings of public school teachers by the 39.4 hours per week reported for white-collar workers, teachers would still earn 26% more per hour than do white-collar workers. If we divide the weekly earnings of public school teachers by the 39.0 hours per week reported for professional specialty and technical workers, teachers would still earn 4% more per hour than do other professionals. That is, the higher mean hourly earnings for public school teachers are not simply a function of fewer reported hours worked per week. Even if we assume that teachers work the same hours as others, they still have higher average pay per hour.

Why Not Look at Annual Earnings?

The simple reason for not looking at annual earnings is that the National Compensation Survey only reports information on an hourly and a weekly basis, not on an annual basis. Since we are trying to stick very closely to what the U.S. Government reports, we do not attempt to calculate annual earnings in this report.

More important, we do not report annual earnings because any comparison between public school teachers and other workers is complicated by the fact that teachers typically are contractually obligated to work nine months out of the year, while other white-collar workers and professionals are 12-month employees. All else being equal, anyone working fewer months per year will have a lower annual salary.

But that would be an apple/orange comparison. One of the significant benefits available to public school teachers is that they work fewer weeks per year. Teachers can use that time to be with family, to engage in activities that they enjoy, or to earn additional money from other employment. Whether teachers use those free weeks to make additional money or simply to enjoy their time off, that time is worth money and cannot simply be ignored when comparing earnings. The appropriate way to compare earnings in this circumstance is to focus on hourly rates.

Is Higher Relative Teacher Pay Associated with Higher Student Achievement?

In this section, we stray slightly from the BLS data to report an original calculation. We examine whether metro areas with higher public school teacher pay relative to white-collar or professional workers have higher student achievement. Our measure of student achievement is the metro area’s high school graduation rate.[11] We rely upon graduation rates because comparable test-score data are not available for metro areas across the United States; in our earlier work on graduation rates, we developed a relatively reliable and consistent measure of achievement.

In the regression model, we control for demographic characteristics of the metro area, including the percentage of students on free or reduced-price school lunch, median household income, the percentage of students who are disabled, and the percentage of students who are non-Hispanic whites. In addition, we include other factors that might be related to student achievement, such as student-teacher ratio, per-pupil spending, total student enrollment, and the number of school districts in the metro area.

The results of the analysis of the relationship between public school teacher pay relative to white-collar pay on high school graduation rates, controlling for these other variables, can be found in Table 5. The same model but with public school teacher pay relative to professional specialty and technical worker pay can be found in Table 6. In neither model does relative teacher pay have any effect on high school graduation rates. Per-pupil spending and the student-teacher ratio also have no effect on high school graduation rates. Metro areas with a higher percentage of white students have higher graduation rates. And it appears that metro areas with fewer students and more school districts have higher graduation rates.

These results should only be considered as exploratory. The analyses only examine 45 metro areas, so they have relatively little statistical leverage. The small sample helps explain why the findings that are statistically significant are barely so or are significant only with a more relaxed standard than is conventional. In addition, the model cannot control for several other factors that may be related both to student achievement and relative teacher pay.

While these results should be treated with caution, they suggest that increasing the pay of teachers relative to others in an area will do nothing to increase student achievement. Similarly, simply spending more on schools and lowering class sizes doesn’t produce higher achievement. But having more small school districts in a metro area does enhance student performance. With more numerous, small districts, families can more easily choose among them to gain access to desired districts. This easier access to residential school choice increases competition among districts for students and the revenues they generate, which provides stronger incentives to increase the quality of schools.[12]

Conclusion

Few education topics elicit as much passion as teacher pay. In any discussion of this issue, one is typically confronted with emotional testimony about personal experiences of long hours and meager pay for critically important work.

To be sure, there is some truth in these teacher responses. Many teachers undoubtedly do devote long hours, for what may seem far too little pay, as they engage in the essential work of educating future generations.

Yet the personal testimony of a number of teachers as to their poor compensation is no substitute for systematic data. If we want to have a productive policy discussion about the appropriate level of public school teacher pay, we have to start with high-quality and systematic data—not emotionally compelling personal stories.

As we stated at the beginning of this report, we offer no opinions on the proper level of pay for public school teachers. We are simply offering facts, almost entirely obtained from an agency of the federal government, that we believe ought to be included in any policy discussion about teacher pay. Before debating whether public teachers are gravely underpaid and deserve special subsidies such as tax breaks, we first need to have a clear understanding of what teachers are actually paid.

When considering teacher pay, policymakers should be aware that public school teachers, on average, are paid 36% more per-hour than the average white-collar worker and 11% more than the average professional specialty and technical worker. They should be aware that the higher relative pay for public school teachers exists in almost every metro area for which data are available. Finally, they should be aware that paying public school teachers more does not appear to be associated with higher student achievement.

Even given these facts, policymakers may well decide that the pay of public school teachers, relative to that of other workers, should be higher than it is now. We may decide that we are interested in increasing teacher pay regardless of the effect or lack of effect on student achievement. In the end, the pay of public employees is largely shaped by political judgments that incorporate subjective values and preferences. Because the level of public school teacher pay is set by governments with taxing power, the market has only a limited influence. The level of public school teacher pay is heavily shaped by whatever the political process decides that it should be. But those decisions are likely to be more responsible and beneficial for students and taxpayers if they are informed by the facts contained in this report.

 

Endnotes

  1. David M. Herzenhorn, “First Lady Campaigns for Teachers and Trainees,” New York Times, September 3, 2003.
  2. Lisa Snell, “Study Shows Teacher Hiring Practices Need Work,” School Reform News, October 2003.
  3. Richard Cohen, “Leave No Teacher Behind,” Washington Post, November 18, 2003.
  4. See Allegretto, Corcoran, and Mishel, “How Does Teacher Pay Compare?” Economic Policy Institute, 2004; Michael Podgursky, “Fringe Benefits,” Education Next, 2003 No. 3; and Greene, Forster, and Winters, Education Myths, Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.
  5. The data come from various administrations of the National Compensation Survey. These surveys are available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics online at: http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ocs/compub.htm.
  6. National Compensation Survey, June 2005, p. 154. Emphasis added. http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ocs/sp/ncbl0832.pdf.
  7. BLS Bulletin 2444, available at: http://www.bls.gov/ebs/sp/chp2sl.txt.
  8. Ibid.
  9. BLS, “Work at Home in 2004,” p. 3. ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/news.release/History/homey.09222005.news.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Graduation rates are calculated using the same method that we have used in our earlier work. See, for example, Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters, “Leaving Boys Behind: Public High School Graduation Rates,” Manhattan Institute, Civic Report No. 48, April 2006. http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_48.htm. Not all metro areas had the necessary information to compute graduation rates, so our sample shrank from 66 metro areas to 45.
  12. For a review of research on residential school choice, see Clive R. Belfield and Henry M. Levin, “The Effects of Competition on Educational Outcomes: A Review of the U.S. Evidence,” National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education, March 2002.


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OP-EDS:
Teachers are better paid than you think Providence Journal, 02-09-07
The myth of the underpaid teacher Philadelphia Daily News, 02-07-07 (This article also appears in the Centre Daily Times, 02-07-07)
Is $34.06 Per Hour 'Underpaid'? Wall Street Journal, 02-02-07
INTERVIEWS:
How Much Are Teachers Really Paid? FrontPageMag.com, 02-07-07
About Teacher Salaries EdNews.org, 02-02-07
WHAT THE PRESS SAID:
Steve Jobs on Teachers Unions, US News: Barone Blog, 2-22-07
Some facts enlighten discussion of teacher pay, Grand Haven Tribune
Teacher unions dispute study's findings about pay, MetroWest Daily News, MA, 02-08-07
Show me what teachers' raise would buy Iowa, DesMoinesRegister.com, 02-16-07
Measuring a Teacher's Worth, AMERICAN.COM, DC, 02-08-07
Dominick: Show me what teachers' raise would buy Iowa, Des Moines Register, 02-16-07
Are teachers better paid than average?, Okeechobee News, 02-15-07
Teacher pay better than most, Arkansas Democrat Gazette, 02-13-07
Michigan's budget crisis means we have to live like we're No. 25, Detroit Free Press, 02-11-07
Teachers dispute critics' study of pay?, Medill News 02-11-07
National study: Teachers among top wage earners, The Toledo Journal, 02-06-07
The myth of the underpaid teacher Philadelphia Daily News, 02-07-07 (This article also appears in the Centre Daily Times, 02-07-07)
Underpaid teachers? Not quite Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 02-05-07
Teacher pay: (a) too high or (b) too low The Columbus Dispatch, 01-31-07
Put teacher pay into perspective Denver Post, 02-05-07
High teacher pay doesn't guarantee results The Detroit News, 02-05-07
Are teachers really underpaid? Charleston Daily Mail, 02-06-07
How Much Are Teachers Paid? Reason Online, 02-04-07
ARE TEACHERS OVERPAID? The New Republic, 02-02-07
$34.06 an Hour Catholic Answers, 02-02-07
Some Facts Enlighten Discussion About Teacher Pay Pier Points, 02-01-07
Do teachers make more? Joanne Jacobs, 02-01-07
The math on teacher salaries Cleveland Plain Dealer, 02-02-07
No handouts for teachers Stuart News, 02-01-07
High teacher pay still doesn't translate into achievement DetroitNews.com, 01-31-07
Study: Metro Detroit teachers earn most The Detroit News, 01-31-07
Teacher Pay Fails to Affect Scores New York Sun, 01-31-07
Report gives edge in pay to teachers Des Moines Register, 01-31-07
Study: Teachers well paid. Union: Not so fast Plain Dealer Reporter, 01-31-07

SUMMARY:
In this new report, Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters provide systematic data on how much public school teachers are paid, relative to other white-collar professionals. Because discussions about teacher pay rarely reference these data, the policy debate on education reform has proceeded without a clear understanding of these issues.

This report compiles information on the hourly pay of public school teachers nationally and in 66 metropolitan areas, as collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), and compares the hourly income of public school teachers to those of workers in similar professions. Nationwide, the average public school teacher earned $34.06 per hour in 2005, which is 36% more per hour than the average non-sales white-collar worker and 11% more than the average professional specialty and technical worker. Full-time public school teachers work on average 36.5 hours per week, compared with 39.4 hours per week for white-collar workers, and 39.0 hours per week for professional specialty and technical workers. Nationwide, public school teachers are paid, on average, 61% more per hour than private school teachers. The authors find no relationship between higher teacher pay rates in metropolitan areas and improved high school graduation rates.

Table of Contents:
Executive Summary
About the Authors
Introduction
How Much Are Public School Teachers Paid?
How Many Hours Do Public School Teachers Work Per Week?
Are Hours Worked Counted Properly?
Why Not Look at Annual Earnings?
Is Higher Relative Teacher Pay Associated with Higher Student Achievement?
Conclusion
Table 1: Mean Hourly Earnings for Public School Teachers relative to White-Collar and Professional Workers (Organized Alphabetically by Metro Area)
Table 1A: Mean Hourly Earnings for Public School Teachers relative to White-Collar and Professional Workers (Organized by Public School Teacher Hourly Earnings)
Table 1B: Mean Hourly Earnings for Public School Teachers relative to White-Collar and Professional Workers (Organized by the ratio of Mean Hourly Earnings for Public School Teachers to White-Collar Workers)
Table 1C: Mean Hourly Earnings for Public School Teachers relative to White-Collar and Professional Workers (Organized by the ratio of Mean Hourly Earnings for Public School Teachers to Professional and Technical Workers)
Table 2: Mean Hourly Earnings for Public School Teachers Compared with Noneducational Professional and Technical Workers
Table 3: Public and Private School Teacher Mean Hourly Earnings
Table 4: A Comparison of Mean Weekly Hours for Full-Time Workers (Organized Alphabetically)
Table 4A: A Comparison of Mean Weekly Hours for Full-Time Workers (Organized by Public School Teacher Mean Weekly Hours)
Table 5: Effect of Teacher Pay relative to White-Collar Workers on Metro Area High School Graduation rates
Table 6: Effect of Teacher Pay relative to Professional Workers on Metro Area High School Graduation rates

ENDNOTES


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